How to organize lighting in an apartment: schemes and rules (installation of electrical wiring)
To date, the euro-repair in your apartment is not uncommon. But whatever interior is chosen, without adequate lighting, it will not produce the desired impression. If we take into account that the availability of electrical appliances in apartments has increased significantly, the old wiring does not cope with the load. To achieve stability and security, the correct lighting scheme of the apartment is needed. Do not necessarily invite specialists. If there is a desire, you can also replace the old electrical wiring yourself.
- 1 Proper lighting in the apartment
- 2 Lighting plan
- 3 Wiring the electrical wiring with your own hands: from scheme to installation
- 4 What wire to use
- 4.1 Material and construction
- 4.2 Cable cross-section for wiring in the apartment
- 4.3 Thickness of core insulation
- 4.4 Shell thickness
- 4.5 Marking
- 4.6 Coloring of cores
- 4.7 How to choose cables and vending machines for an apartment (1 video)
- 4.8 Various lighting schemes and examples of finished projects (55 photos)
Proper lighting in the apartment
For the correct distribution of light, plan and think over the lighting of the dwelling. It should not only correspond to the interior design, but also provide residents with convenience and comfort.
How to do it correctly
There are two types of lighting: local and general. By name it is clear that the general is used to illuminate the entire room, and the local - only in a certain area. If we talk more about local lighting, then it is divided into a working one and a point one. Thus, working-type lighting is provided for lighting the working area: a dining table in the kitchen, a place in the office and so on. Spotlight emphasizes details: lighting paintings, mirrors, decor elements.
When planning the arrangement of light, you need to think carefully about what you want to achieve as a result. They are oriented not only to matching the interior, but also to the personal preferences of the owners.
What do you need
If you approach the provision of light in the apartment by all the rules, then initially carry out the design. The lighting scheme in the apartment is based on the design of the house itself and the rooms themselves, the form of the ceiling, the finishing materials, the placement of furniture. After evaluating all the factors in the layout of the apartment plan, you need to choose the location of the devices for light, as well as switches and sockets.
Calculation of lighting (standards and number of lamps)
To ensure the competent design of light, you need to determine what power will be optimal for a particular home. Hence, an indicator is calculated, such as the number of light sources and incandescent lamps needed for a certain area. For all rules, the power of light is distributed in the following way: every 5 m2 illuminates the lamp capacity of 60-65 kW. Based on these indicators, it is not difficult to correctly calculate the number of bulbs needed for a particular room.
Let's consider an example, what quantity of lamps is necessary for illumination of a drawing room with the area of 15 m2. The table below shows lamps of different types.
After the number of devices for providing light is determined, the lighting plan in the apartment is formed. It displays the location of lamps or groups of lighting, as well as elements that serve to turn on and off lights.
Note also the type of switches used. For example, you can put one-key or two-key. Sometimes, if the room has a large area, use duplicating switches for light. They are intended to regulate the same lighting device, but are located at different ends of the room.
In the drawing, the circuits also indicate the type of lighting - ceiling or wall. It is necessary to note on the diagram, to which regulating element the lighting point belongs.
Let's give an example of a scheme for providing light to a one-room apartment with an area of about 40 m2. In accordance with the norms, no more than 8 luminaires are needed.
Used and wall lamps, table lamps for lighting a certain area. Likewise, LED ribbons have been widely used to provide additional illumination. Depending on what kinds of lighting devices will be used, the wiring layout is selected.
On the video: principles of lighting design in an apartment.
Wiring the electrical wiring with your own hands: from scheme to installation
The implementation of electricity in the house is quite a responsible business. Without experience and certain skills can not do. The main thing is to know the correct aspects of wiring, to read and create circuits, to have the skills of wiring. But you can overpower it if you want and make a gasket yourself. For this, we present recommendations on all aspects.
All the rules that must be observed when wiring routing, as well as for other types of construction work, are covered in SNiPs and GOSTs. With regard to electrical wiring, refer to the section "Rules for the installation of electrical installations (PUE)". When starting work on wiring, this section is necessarily studied.
Design and wiring diagram
Like any work, the wiring begins with the design and drawing up of circuits. To create them, specialists are involved, which in Moscow are quite numerous. After all, security depends on them in the apartment, and in the whole house. This service is worth some money, but safety and peace of mind above all else.
If the decision is made to do the work independently, and there is an initial knowledge in the field of electricity, then all the above rules should be adhered to. Ensure that all light loads are correctly calculated.
To compile a project and schemes, it is necessary to begin with the development of symbols. The decoding is given below in the photo.
Begin the project with the creation of an apartment plan, which marks all the lighting points, the location of switches and sockets. Further, taking into account all the rules, lines of laying conductors are drawn. In order for the wiring diagram to be practical, the location of the devices is premeditated in advance.
At the next stage of the circuit design, the connection to the connection point is thought out. This point requires more detailed consideration. This is due to different types of connection: parallel, sequential or mixed. The latter method is the most economical in terms of materials and performance.
This is one example of a grouping for a wiring diagram. The bottom line is that the more carefully the groups are thought out, the more economical will be the cost of materials, and the schematic drawing is simpler. The dimensions of the apartment are also important. In one-room design is carried out in one way, and in a room with a large area - with the addition of elements.
The next important point is the calculation of the load. It must be indicated in the project. Calculations are carried out according to the formula I = P / U. It uses the values of P - the sum of the powers of all devices that are planned to be used, U - the voltage indicator in the network.
An example of voltage calculation: an electric kettle - 2,2 kW, lighting for 10 bulbs with a power of 100 W, power of a refrigerator and microwave in the amount of 1.4 W. In the apartments the current strength is traditionally 220 volts. After the calculations, we get: (2200 + 1000 + 1400): 220 = 20.1 A.
There are small assumptions. You can add a little to the calculated load. But, according to the standard, it is required not to exceed 25 A. When calculating the load, they begin to purchase the necessary materials, based on the result. To facilitate the selection, the table below shows the main parameters of the wire and cable.
Installation of electrical wiring
Important! When installing new wiring, they initially dismantle the old one. In this case, it is necessary to use the device to check the voltage.
Drawing a circuit and preparing channels
Once the surface is ready, wire the wires inside the space from the angle side. To do this, it is necessary to make a hole in the wall. Best of all, if it is located in the corner of the room.
Mounting of an open wiring
At the initial stage, the shield is installed at a certain height. Directly into the shield is located an RCD. By the number they are determined in accordance with the lighting groups. By its structure, the shield looks like this: on the top there are terminals for zero wires, at the bottom for grounding. Between them are machines.
Connection in the panel device is carried out in the following way: blue wire to the zero terminal, white to the RCD in the upper part, yellow wires to the ground terminals. Connections of automata are made in a parallel way.
For an open type of installation, first fix the marked lines of the box. Fastening is carried out by means of dowels with self-tapping screws. The extreme settle down at a distance of about 5-7 cm, and then follow a step of 0.5 m.
Important! When installing an open type wiring, it is not necessary to prepare openings for sockets and switches. In their quality, products are used that are hung on the plane of the wall.
All wires on the marked lines are placed in boxes and are led to the distribution boxes. Immediately in them are made connections. This can be done by tight twisting, after which the wires must be carefully insulated.
The concealed wiring is mounted a bit simpler in terms of the amount of work. According to the principle of connection, it differs from the open type only in that it is placed inside the walls, in a pre-prepared groove. Before placing the wires in the shtrobe, mount the boxes for switches and sockets. They fix with alabaster. When the material is frozen, electric wires are wound in them and, according to the plan in the strobes, are led to the junction boxes.
After all the sockets and switches are installed, the lighting devices are connected, the wire connections in the boxes are made, it is necessary to check the correctness of the connection. In order not to make a mistake, the connections are called up by a special device for electrical testing.
On the video: TOP-10 rules of electrical wiring.
What wire to use
Cables to provide electricity in the apartment must be selected according to certain criteria. It is advisable not to change anything at your own discretion, since the safe operation of the system depends on this.
Material and construction
Materials used to make wires, there are two types: aluminum and copper. Aluminum is inexpensive, but copper is much more reliable and can provide high-quality operation.
In their structure, the wires are divided into single-core and several-core wires. In the first case, the material is covered with a sheath of insulation. The characteristics of single conductors include: cheap, convenient for installation, have a high degree of rigidity. The latter property leads to frequent fractures of the conductor.
Masters prefer to work with stranded wires. They have good resistance to torsion, bending. If the circuit involves a sharp turn, then you can be sure that the conductor does not break.
Cable cross-section for wiring in the apartment
Cross-section of the cable is one of the important characteristics. It directly depends on its index, whether the conductor will withstand the applied voltage. It is measured in square millimeters. Thus, in aluminum conductors with a cross section of 1 mm2 withstand voltage of 8 A. Concerning copper products 1 mm2 is able to miss 10 A.
The choice of conductor cross-sections must be carried out under load. Do not use wires the cross section of which is less than the expected load.
Thickness of core insulation
Any conductor has insulation. To ensure its use, plastic materials. The thickness of the vein insulating layer is determined by articles of normative documents. For example, for a conductor designed for a load of 660 V, with a cross section of 1.5-2.5 mm2 the thickness of insulation is 0.6 mm.
The next point to look out for is the outer casing of the cable. It is she who closes several veins of the conductor. Like vein insulation, plastic materials are used for the exterior, but its thickness is much larger. Basically it is 1.4-1.8 mm. Take into account the fact that there are permissible deviations.
Coloring of cores
The insulation of the cores can have a monochromatic coloring, and sometimes, apply a strip 1 mm thick along the entire length of the article.
The lighting planning process in the house is quite responsible. But if the goal is achieved with all the correspondences with the rules, this will lead to an amazing result. The correct light in the interior enhances the effect several times. Impressions of consumers are estimated from the comments meeting on the Internet.