How to organize lighting in an apartment: schemes and rules (installation of electrical wiring)

How to organize lighting in an apartment: schemes and rules (installation of electrical wiring)

To date, the euro-repair in your apartment is not uncommon. But whatever interior is chosen, without adequate lighting, it will not produce the desired impression. If we take into account that the availability of electrical appliances in apartments has increased significantly, the old wiring does not cope with the load. To achieve stability and security, the correct lighting scheme of the apartment is needed. Do not necessarily invite specialists. If there is a desire, you can also replace the old electrical wiring yourself.

Proper lighting in the apartment

For the correct distribution of light, plan and think over the lighting of the dwelling. It should not only correspond to the interior design, but also provide residents with convenience and comfort.

Proper lighting in the apartment

How to do it correctly

There are two types of lighting: local and general. By name it is clear that the general is used to illuminate the entire room, and the local - only in a certain area. If we talk more about local lighting, then it is divided into a working one and a point one. Thus, working-type lighting is provided for lighting the working area: a dining table in the kitchen, a place in the office and so on. Spotlight emphasizes details: lighting paintings, mirrors, decor elements.

Lighting in the interior of the apartment

When planning the arrangement of light, you need to think carefully about what you want to achieve as a result. They are oriented not only to matching the interior, but also to the personal preferences of the owners.

What do you need

To arrange the correct lighting, remember the following facts:

  • For each room, the light must be provided individually. If the living room is suitable for bright lights, then for the bedroom you need a soft light.
  • The layout of the luminaires and other light sources is based on the location of the functional areas requiring illumination.
  • Correct selection of power and number of lighting devices will create a comfortable environment.
Lighting in the apartment
The most important thing is to accurately locate the fixtures

Lighting plan

If you approach the provision of light in the apartment by all the rules, then initially carry out the design. The lighting scheme in the apartment is based on the design of the house itself and the rooms themselves, the form of the ceiling, the finishing materials, the placement of furniture. After evaluating all the factors in the layout of the apartment plan, you need to choose the location of the devices for light, as well as switches and sockets.

Calculation of lighting (standards and number of lamps)

To ensure the competent design of light, you need to determine what power will be optimal for a particular home. Hence, an indicator is calculated, such as the number of light sources and incandescent lamps needed for a certain area. For all rules, the power of light is distributed in the following way: every 5 m2 illuminates the lamp capacity of 60-65 kW. Based on these indicators, it is not difficult to correctly calculate the number of bulbs needed for a particular room.

Average lamp power for different rooms

Let's consider an example, what quantity of lamps is necessary for illumination of a drawing room with the area of ​​15 m2. The table below shows lamps of different types.

Number of lamps for lighting in the living room

Connection diagram

After the number of devices for providing light is determined, the lighting plan in the apartment is formed. It displays the location of lamps or groups of lighting, as well as elements that serve to turn on and off lights.

Note also the type of switches used. For example, you can put one-key or two-key. Sometimes, if the room has a large area, use duplicating switches for light. They are intended to regulate the same lighting device, but are located at different ends of the room.

Illumination plan with two pass-through switches
Example of a lighting plan with redundant switches

In the drawing, the circuits also indicate the type of lighting - ceiling or wall. It is necessary to note on the diagram, to which regulating element the lighting point belongs.

Example Schema

Let's give an example of a scheme for providing light to a one-room apartment with an area of ​​about 40 m2. In accordance with the norms, no more than 8 luminaires are needed.

Lighting devices in a one-room apartment can be carried out in the following way:

  • 3 point lights on the ceiling;
  • one chandelier;
  • two sconces;
  • one floor lamp;
  • lamp to illuminate the desk.
The scheme of lighting in the apartment
The scheme of lighting in a one-room apartment

The installation of lighting in an apartment having a similar area, but consisting of two rooms, is provided by:

  • two chandeliers;
  • 3-4 ceiling lightings;
  • table lamp;
  • two sconces and a floor lamp.

Plan of lighting in the apartment

Lighting

Lighting should be carried out by means of different types of light sources:

  • Spot lights are built into the suspended or stretched ceiling.

point light fitting

  • Conventional chandeliers are mounted in two ways: fastening to the hook in the ceiling surface or using dowels.

installation of a chandelier in a stretched ceiling

Used and wall lamps, table lamps for lighting a certain area. Likewise, LED ribbons have been widely used to provide additional illumination. Depending on what kinds of lighting devices will be used, the wiring layout is selected.

On the video: principles of lighting design in an apartment.

Wiring the electrical wiring with your own hands: from scheme to installation

The implementation of electricity in the house is quite a responsible business. Without experience and certain skills can not do. The main thing is to know the correct aspects of wiring, to read and create circuits, to have the skills of wiring. But you can overpower it if you want and make a gasket yourself. For this, we present recommendations on all aspects.

Fundamental rules

All the rules that must be observed when wiring routing, as well as for other types of construction work, are covered in SNiPs and GOSTs. With regard to electrical wiring, refer to the section "Rules for the installation of electrical installations (PUE)". When starting work on wiring, this section is necessarily studied.

Let's provide the basic list of rules of installation of wiring in the apartment:

  • Place the main components, such as meter, sockets, switches, automatons and the like, in easily accessible places.
  • The switch placement parameters range from 0.6 to 1.5 m from the floor level. The location should be in an easily accessible place at the door when entering the room. Wires must be laid starting from the top.

correct placement of switches and sockets

  • The installation parameters of the outlets are 0.5-0.8 m from the floor level. This is due to the prevention of closure when the apartment is flooded. Do not place sockets near a gas or electric stove, or near grounded objects. The distance from them should be at least 0.5 m.

Correct placement of outlets in the kitchen

  • According to the standard, the number of outlets is planned to be 1 piece per 6 m2. The kitchen is allowed more of them, as they are necessary for the connection of electrical appliances. In the bathroom, the sockets are not installed, and for the bathroom it is better to provide a separate transformer.
  • Wire laying is only necessary on the horizontal and vertical lines, which are necessarily marked on the plan.

wiring diagram

  • When laying, it is necessary to take into account the location of pipes, ceilings and other obstacles. In the case of horizontal conductors, the distance should be about 10 cm, and the vertical distance - 15 cm.
  • Be sure to ensure that the wires do not come into contact with metal objects.
  • When laying several wires, it is necessary to provide a distance of at least 3 mm between them. It is also desirable to insulate the wiring in a special corrugation.

wiring insulation

  • For wire routing, use special boxes. The compounds are carefully insulated. Experts categorically prohibit the connection of aluminum and copper wires.

Design and wiring diagram

Like any work, the wiring begins with the design and drawing up of circuits. To create them, specialists are involved, which in Moscow are quite numerous. After all, security depends on them in the apartment, and in the whole house. This service is worth some money, but safety and peace of mind above all else.

If the decision is made to do the work independently, and there is an initial knowledge in the field of electricity, then all the above rules should be adhered to. Ensure that all light loads are correctly calculated.

To compile a project and schemes, it is necessary to begin with the development of symbols. The decoding is given below in the photo.

conventions for lighting circuits

Begin the project with the creation of an apartment plan, which marks all the lighting points, the location of switches and sockets. Further, taking into account all the rules, lines of laying conductors are drawn. In order for the wiring diagram to be practical, the location of the devices is premeditated in advance.

lighting plan in the apartment

At the next stage of the circuit design, the connection to the connection point is thought out. This point requires more detailed consideration. This is due to different types of connection: parallel, sequential or mixed. The latter method is the most economical in terms of materials and performance.

To facilitate the process, the connection points are divided into groups:

  • layout of lighting in the kitchen, corridor and living rooms;
  • providing illumination of a bathroom and a bathroom;
  • the arrangement of outlets in a residential area;
  • power supply for the kitchen;
  • the device of sockets for an electric stove.

This is one example of a grouping for a wiring diagram. The bottom line is that the more carefully the groups are thought out, the more economical will be the cost of materials, and the schematic drawing is simpler. The dimensions of the apartment are also important. In one-room design is carried out in one way, and in a room with a large area - with the addition of elements.

electrical connection to the connection point

The next important point is the calculation of the load. It must be indicated in the project. Calculations are carried out according to the formula I = P / U. It uses the values ​​of P - the sum of the powers of all devices that are planned to be used, U - the voltage indicator in the network.

An example of voltage calculation: an electric kettle - 2,2 kW, lighting for 10 bulbs with a power of 100 W, power of a refrigerator and microwave in the amount of 1.4 W. In the apartments the current strength is traditionally 220 volts. After the calculations, we get: (2200 + 1000 + 1400): 220 = 20.1 A.

There are small assumptions. You can add a little to the calculated load. But, according to the standard, it is required not to exceed 25 A. When calculating the load, they begin to purchase the necessary materials, based on the result. To facilitate the selection, the table below shows the main parameters of the wire and cable.

wire and cable parameters

Installation of electrical wiring

Installation work is not as difficult as it seems. Here safety comes first. Before you start, prepare the following tools:

  • device for testing;
  • a turbine or a drill with a perforator;
  • screwdriver;
  • pliers.

wiring tools

Important! When installing new wiring, they initially dismantle the old one. In this case, it is necessary to use the device to check the voltage.

voltage tester

Drawing a circuit and preparing channels

All work begins with the transfer of the drawing directly to the walls. Prepare the surface according to the following algorithm:

1. In accordance with the plan, mark the necessary places for the passage of the wiring by the marker. Then mark the place of installation of the elements: sockets, flaps, automata and so on. Everything is marked in accordance with the plan.

installation of electrical wiring by one's own hands

2. A drill with a crown attachment in the locations of the outlets and switches is made for the boxes for them.

installation of electrical wiring by one's own hands

3. With the help of a perforator stitches are made. For this you can use a turbine. Stroba must be of a certain size, so that the wire can easily fit in it.

installation of electrical wiring by one's own hands

Once the surface is ready, wire the wires inside the space from the angle side. To do this, it is necessary to make a hole in the wall. Best of all, if it is located in the corner of the room.

Mounting of an open wiring

At the initial stage, the shield is installed at a certain height. Directly into the shield is located an RCD. By the number they are determined in accordance with the lighting groups. By its structure, the shield looks like this: on the top there are terminals for zero wires, at the bottom for grounding. Between them are machines.

Connection in the panel device is carried out in the following way: blue wire to the zero terminal, white to the RCD in the upper part, yellow wires to the ground terminals. Connections of automata are made in a parallel way.

installation of electrical wiring by one's own hands

For an open type of installation, first fix the marked lines of the box. Fastening is carried out by means of dowels with self-tapping screws. The extreme settle down at a distance of about 5-7 cm, and then follow a step of 0.5 m.

Important! When installing an open type wiring, it is not necessary to prepare openings for sockets and switches. In their quality, products are used that are hung on the plane of the wall.

open electrical wiring

All wires on the marked lines are placed in boxes and are led to the distribution boxes. Immediately in them are made connections. This can be done by tight twisting, after which the wires must be carefully insulated.

open electrical wiring

Mounting of hidden wiring

The concealed wiring is mounted a bit simpler in terms of the amount of work. According to the principle of connection, it differs from the open type only in that it is placed inside the walls, in a pre-prepared groove. Before placing the wires in the shtrobe, mount the boxes for switches and sockets. They fix with alabaster. When the material is frozen, electric wires are wound in them and, according to the plan in the strobes, are led to the junction boxes.

installation of electrical wiring by one's own hands

After all the sockets and switches are installed, the lighting devices are connected, the wire connections in the boxes are made, it is necessary to check the correctness of the connection. In order not to make a mistake, the connections are called up by a special device for electrical testing.

continuity test

On the video: TOP-10 rules of electrical wiring.

What wire to use

Cables to provide electricity in the apartment must be selected according to certain criteria. It is advisable not to change anything at your own discretion, since the safe operation of the system depends on this.

Material and construction

Materials used to make wires, there are two types: aluminum and copper. Aluminum is inexpensive, but copper is much more reliable and can provide high-quality operation.

copper and aluminum wire

In their structure, the wires are divided into single-core and several-core wires. In the first case, the material is covered with a sheath of insulation. The characteristics of single conductors include: cheap, convenient for installation, have a high degree of rigidity. The latter property leads to frequent fractures of the conductor.

Masters prefer to work with stranded wires. They have good resistance to torsion, bending. If the circuit involves a sharp turn, then you can be sure that the conductor does not break.

connecting the wires in the junction box

Cable cross-section for wiring in the apartment

Cross-section of the cable is one of the important characteristics. It directly depends on its index, whether the conductor will withstand the applied voltage. It is measured in square millimeters. Thus, in aluminum conductors with a cross section of 1 mm2 withstand voltage of 8 A. Concerning copper products 1 mm2 is able to miss 10 A.

The choice of conductor cross-sections must be carried out under load. Do not use wires the cross section of which is less than the expected load.

cable cross-section for wiring in the apartment

Thickness of core insulation

Any conductor has insulation. To ensure its use, plastic materials. The thickness of the vein insulating layer is determined by articles of normative documents. For example, for a conductor designed for a load of 660 V, with a cross section of 1.5-2.5 mm2 the thickness of insulation is 0.6 mm.

Shell thickness

The next point to look out for is the outer casing of the cable. It is she who closes several veins of the conductor. Like vein insulation, plastic materials are used for the exterior, but its thickness is much larger. Basically it is 1.4-1.8 mm. Take into account the fact that there are permissible deviations.

cable core insulation

Marking

On any cable there are signs that are called markings. It allows you to better read information about the characteristics of the product:

  • The first letter denotes the material from which the outer shell of the product is made.
  • The following letters can denote such properties as the degree of tightness, flammability of the insulating layer, the presence of steel tapes in insulation, flatness or flexibility.
  • The material from which the conductor is made is marked only on aluminum cables with the letter "A". On copper products the letter of material is not specified.
  • In addition, you can read information about the manufacturer and the date of manufacture.

cable marking

Coloring of cores

The insulation of the cores can have a monochromatic coloring, and sometimes, apply a strip 1 mm thick along the entire length of the article.

The color of the vein insulation characterizes the purpose of the conductor:

  • The first phase is red, brown and white insulation;
  • the second is zero, blue;
  • the third is grounding, green or green-yellow.

cable coloring

The lighting planning process in the house is quite responsible. But if the goal is achieved with all the correspondences with the rules, this will lead to an amazing result. The correct light in the interior enhances the effect several times. Impressions of consumers are estimated from the comments meeting on the Internet.

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